1st Amendment
2nd Amendment
Capitol Invasion
Foreign Policy
Friends of Trump
National Security
US Elections
Witch Hunts

Commonly Used Fallacies of Logic and Reasoning

People knowingly and unknowingly engage in bad reasoning—especially in meetings and arguments. Using bad logic and fallacious reasoning, one can easily create a strong case that looks accurate and unbeatable, when in fact, it’s just a trick i.e., the logic of the argument is fallacious. A precursor to effective persuasion is taking down your opponent’s logic by finding flaws in their claims while also dodging their attacks. Here’s a list of 25 most common logical fallacies that would help you arm yourself against false arguments disguised to look good.
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on skype
Share on reddit
Share on whatsapp

Ad Hominem

Attacking the person making the argument, rather than the argument itself, when the attack on the person is completely irrelevant to the argument the person is making. This is one of the most common forms of attack to invalidate a person’s claim. For example, a parent says that a teacher doesn’t know how to teach because she didn’t go to a prestigious college.

There are other variations of Ad Hominem such as, suggesting that the person who is making the argument is biased, or predisposed to take a particular stance, and therefore, the argument is necessarily invalid. For example, a VC arguing for the Silicon Valley business model of growing big by losing money.

Or, a person is viewed negatively because of their association with another person or group that is already viewed negatively. For example, when you supported equal pay for equal work, you were associated with some extremist feminist group and therefore dismissed.

Strawman Fallacy

Substituting a person’s actual position or argument with a distorted, exaggerated, or misinterpreted version of the position of the argument. For example, when you ask your friends not to bully the new kid, they accuse you of choosing the new kid’s side instead of your friends.

Red Herring

Attempting to redirect the argument to another issue that to which the person doing the redirecting can better respond. Red Herring is a deliberate diversion of attention with the intention of trying to abandon the original argument. For example, when your wife asks why have you forgotten to pay the bills, you start talking about this amazing restaurant that you both just gotta go.

Slippery Slope

This is an absurd extrapolation when a relatively insignificant first event is suggested to lead to a more significant event, which in turn leads to a more significant event, and so on, until some ultimate, significant event is reached, where the connection of each event is not only unwarranted, but with each step it becomes more and more improbable.

For example, If we don’t lock children in the closet, they would want to roam in the house. If we allow that, they’ll start roaming in the neighbourhood. They next thing you know, they’ll get into accidents, or god forbid, get kidnapped and then sold as a slave in some country. Therefore, it’s better if we lock them up in closets. It’s for their own good.

Loaded Question

A question that has a presupposition built in, which implies something but protects the one asking the question from accusations of false claims. It is a form of misleading discourse, and it is a fallacy when the audience does not detect the assumed information implicit in the question, and accepts it as a fact. For example, “How many times a week do you beat your children?” already established that you do beat up your children.

Circular Reasoning

A type of reasoning in which the proposition is supported by the premises, which is supported by the proposition, creating a circle in reasoning where no useful information is being shared.

Circular reasoning may sound humorous, but it can be very convincing to those who already accept the argument as true, and are more likely to be further convinced. For example, “The Bible if the word of God. Because God tells us it is… in the Bible.”

False Dilemma

When only two choices are presented yet more exist, or a spectrum of possible choices exist between two extremes. False dilemmas are usually characterised by “either this or that” language, but can also be characterised by omissions of choices. For example, “It’s either this or war,” or, “If you aren’t with us, you are against us.” Another variety is the false trilemma, which is when three choices are presented when more exist. For example when you say, “That guy is insolent, dumb, and a liar,” but you miss out that he is also very popular.

Appeal to Common Belief

When the claim that most or many people in general or of a particular group accept a belief as true is presented as evidence for the claim. This is when people give in to bias by social proof. Just because a lot of people are against something, it’s automatically perceived as bad.

Accepting another person’s belief, or many people’s beliefs, without demanding evidence as to why that person accepts the belief, is lazy thinking and a dangerous way to accept information. Remember: if 50 Mn people say something foolish, it is still foolish.

Appeal to Emotion

This is the general category of many fallacies that use emotion in place of reason in order to attempt to win the argument. It is a type of manipulation used in place of valid logic. Appeal to Common Belief an example. Other popular examples are, Appeal to Extremes, Appeal to Faith, Appeal to Flattery, Appeal to Authority, etc.

Anonymous Authority

When an unspecified source is used as evidence for the claim. This is commonly indicated by phrases such as “They say that…”, “It has been said…”, “I heard that…”, “Studies show…”, or generalised groups such as, “Scientists say…” When we fail to specify a source of the authority, we can’t verify the source, thus the credibility of the argument.

Appeals to anonymous sources are more often than not, either a way to fabricate, exaggerate, or misrepresent “facts” in order to deceive others into accepting a claim.

Argument from Ignorance

The assumption of a conclusion or fact based primarily on lack of evidence to the contrary. Usually best described by, “Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence.” For example, when you say that you have no evidence that closing malls, theatres, and schools would prevent the spread of a virus, there’s absence of evidence, not evidence of absence.

Argument by Repetition

Repeating an argument or a premise over and over again in place of more supporting evidence. “It’s true. This person should be nominated. If any person, it should be him, and nobody else. Others maybe deserving, but not as deserving as this guy. It’s true!” Here no evidence has been presented. The same thing has been mentioned over and over again to make it sound plausible. Politicians often raise their voice to stir emotions and make it more effective.

Hasty Generalisation

Drawing a conclusion based on a small sample size (usually one anecdote), rather than looking at statistics that are much more in line with the typical or average situation. For example, since I know a person who smoked 4 packets everyday and still lived till 94, I can safely conclude that cigarette smoking isn’t injurious to health.

Poisoning the Well

To commit a pre-emptive Ad Hominem attack against an opponent. That is, to prime the audience with adverse information about the opponent from the start, in an attempt to make your claim more acceptable, or discount the credibility of your opponent’s claim. For example, my opponent who is about to present his case has donated millions to oil companies. He supports drilling for oil in protected locations. Mind you, he’s a wolf in sheep’s clothing.

No True Scotsman

When a universal (“all”, “every”, etc.) claim is refuted, rather than conceding the point or meaningfully revising the claim, the claim is altered by going from universal to specific, and failing to give any objective criteria for the specificity. The No True Scotsman fallacy appeals to the “purity” of an ideal or standard as a way to dismiss relevant criticisms or flaws in your argument. For example, all those who follow me will live happily ever after. Okay, then why are so many unhappy among the followers? Well, they aren’t really true followers.

False Cause

Concluding that one thing caused another, simply because they are regularly associated. For example, many homosexuals have AIDS, therefore, homosexuality causes AIDS.

Special Pleading

Applying standards, principles, and/or rules to other people or circumstances, while making oneself or certain circumstances exempt from the same critical criteria, without providing adequate justification. Special pleading is often a result of strong emotional beliefs that interfere with reason. For example, drunk drivers should be punished, but he is only a kid, who’s good at heart. This was his only mistake. Please let him go!

Weak Analogy

When an analogy is used to prove or disprove an argument, but the analogy is too dissimilar to be effective, that is, it is unlike the argument more than it is like the argument. For example, not believing that ghosts exit just because you didn’t see one is like saying that your great grandfather didn’t exist just because you yourself didn’t see him.


The general beliefs that we use to categorise people, objects, and events, while assuming those beliefs are accurate generalisations of the whole group. For example, all rich people are evil. Let’s ban the billionaires.

Style Over Substance

When the arguer embellishes the argument with compelling language or rhetoric, and/or visual aesthetics. If it sounds or looks good, it must be right. For example, a chain is only as strong as its weakest link. It works wonders if it rhymes, for example, whomever smelled it, dealt it! Proverbs, such as, “Tit for tat,” also do the trick.


Confidently asserting that a theory or hypothesis is true or false even though the theory or hypothesis cannot possibly be contradicted by an observation or the outcome of any physical experiment, usually without strong evidence or good reasons.

Making unfalsifiable claims are a way to leave the realm of rational discourse, since unfalsifiable claims are usually not founded on evidence and reason. For example, you are depressed as an adult because of mental trauma you suffered as a kid. But there’s no scientific method to either prove or disprove it.

Tu Quoque

Claiming that an argument is flawed by pointing out the hypocrisy in the opponent—that the one making the argument is not acting consistently with the claims of the argument. This tactic doesn’t solve the problem, or prove one’s point, because even hypocrites can tell the truth. For example, vegans talking about the benefits of having milk are frowned upon for not following their own advice. However, it doesn’t make their argument any wrong.


Equivocation happens when a word, phrase, or sentence is used deliberately to confuse, deceive, or mislead by sounding like it’s saying one thing but actually saying something else. Equivocation comes from the roots “equal” and “voice” and refers to two-voices; a single word can “say” two different things. Another word for this is ambiguity. For example, when a politician says that his party is planning a strategic federal investment in critical programs with the taxpayer’s money.


The process of force-fitting some current affair into one’s personal, political, or religious agenda. Many people aren’t aware of how easy it is to make something look like confirmation of a claim after the fact, especially if the source of the confirmation is something in which they already believe. Shoehorned claims, for example, a certain startup is successful because of having  a female CEO, are unfalsifiable.


Offering false or made-up excuses for our claim because we know the real reasons are much less persuasive to share.

Start a Conversation

Recommended Content
Smoking Chair Girls
Top Deals

No One Knows How to Behave in Public Anymore

Americans are beginning to re-enter society, and some of them have forgotten how to behave: They’re acting up at sporting events, in stores, on planes and anywhere else they can manage to get into trouble.

Lindsey Graham: Calls for Trump ally to resign over Georgia phone call

Calls have been made for Donald Trump ally Lindsey Graham to resign over his controversial Georgia ballots phone call.

Pressure has mounted on Senator Graham after an official corroborated the call in which he asked the state’s secretary of state about the possibility of throwing out legal ballots.

Fabricated Claim of Biden Campaign Official’s Arrest

A viral tale on social media falsely claims that a campaign official for President-elect Joe Biden was arrested in an illegal ballot-harvesting scheme in Texas. He has not been charged or arrested. The false claim stems from unverified allegations in an unsuccessful lawsuit brought by a group of Republicans.

Dutch research funding agency, paralyzed by ransomware attack, refuses to pay up

Hackers published a batch of internal documents from the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) on the dark web yesterday, after the agency refused to pay up in a ransomware attack. The attack, which began on 8 February, has completely knocked out the agency’s grant application and review process and cut off NWO’s communication with applicants, grantees, and universities.

Fantasy Football: Is Chris Carson a sneaky RB1 candidate?

It’s tough to find many NFL players who have overcome the odds better than rising fifth-year RB Chris Carson, who has largely done nothing other than ball the hell out since the Seahawks drafted him in the seventh round of the 2017 draft. While playing 16 games is something that still hasn’t been accomplished, few backs run with the same sort of ferocity that Carson has displayed on a near every-down basis over the years.

QAnon moves from pro-Trump rallies to local schools

Maybe it shouldn’t come as a surprise that QAnon, the once-fringe conspiracy theory with a cult following that buoyed former President Donald Trump’s campaign brand over the past few years — much like the former president himself — has refused to go away.

The Best Hotel Resorts In Las Vegas, 2021

If you’re looking for the best places to stay in Las Vegas don’t worry about it — we’ve already done all the hard work for you. We searched Yelp for the best hotels in Las Vegas and here’s our twelve favorites.

Cousins, K. – Min (QB)

2021 fantasy player outlook for Kirk Cousins, QB, Minnesota Vikings (6/23) Advice: Cousins is best drafted as a No. 2 quarterback in the double-digit rounds, but he’s one of the more reliable options you can say that about. Cousins has finished as a top-12 quarterback in five of the past six seasons. So why don’t we draft him that way? For starters, it’s difficult to compare 2015-18 Cousins to what he’s been the past two years. The Vikings have morphed into one of the most run-heavy offenses in football, which is why Cousins missed the mark in 2019, and needed a career-best 6.8% touchdown rate to sneak into the top 12 in 2020. Even with the emergence of Justin Jefferson, you should expect Cousins to regress back towards his career norm in 2021, which means he won’t crack the top 12 passers unless Mike Zimmer has a complete change of heart. Cousins’ reliability does make him an excellent second quarterback in a two-QB league. (
More: Highlights | Draft Scout | Contract | Profile | Stats | News | Depth Chart | Discussion | Shop

Hawaii Collection: Wood Prints

The Hawaii Collection WOOD PRINTS Bring nature inside and turn any piece of artwork into a beautiful wood print. The grain of the wood comes

A Guide To Rum

Today we introduce you closer to the world of rum, everything you need to know about rum boiled down into 4 minutes of your life. These are four minutes you’ll never wish to get back because your brain is now packed with knowledge.

Take this knowledge, head to the store and buy a nice bottle of rum from a style you’ve yet to encounter in your past.

Trump Turns Down COVID Vaccines & Ted Cruz Can’t Handle the Truth

Jimmy talks about the color of the year announcement, the Trump Administration passing on the chance to get an additional 100 million doses of the COVID-19 vaccines, everyone lying throughout the pandemic, half of Americans wanting to “wait and see” before they get the vaccine, YouTube taking down videos that claim the election was fraud, Trump’s terrible record in court and asking Ted Cruz to argue on his behalf in front of SCOTUS, a new product from MyPillow, and to commemorate the first night of Hanukkah we take to the street for a round of “Jewish Holiday or Prescription Medication!”

Dolphin Excursions Hawaii

We had an incredible time today with Lexy and Mandy out on the boat. They navigated us to be able to see whales, then swim with turtles and dolphins. The trip felt very safe (Covid-related) and they were knowledgeable and helpful. I highly highly recommend it!!

Fabricated Claim of Biden Campaign Official’s Arrest

A viral tale on social media falsely claims that a campaign official for President-elect Joe Biden was arrested in an illegal ballot-harvesting scheme in Texas. He has not been charged or arrested. The false claim stems from unverified allegations in an unsuccessful lawsuit brought by a group of Republicans.

The nation’s cartoonists on the week in politics

Every week political cartoonists throughout the country and across the political spectrum apply their ink-stained skills to capture the foibles, memes, hypocrisies and other head-slapping events in the world of politics. The fruits of these labors are hundreds of cartoons that entertain and enrage readers of all political stripes. Here’s an offering of the best of this week’s crop, picked fresh off the Toonosphere. Edited by Matt Wuerker.


Hawaii Collection: Aluminum Prints

Aluminum prints come in regular or brushed aluminum, which gives the print a great texture. As aluminum is a light material it is well-suited for large format art pieces. Colors printed on aluminum are highly saturated, even in large monochrome areas, so these prints are ideal for experimenting with bright colors. Aluminum prints are a more unique product as they are not something you’ll see in every home. Customers looking for aluminum prints are really looking for the “wow factor” — so don’t be afraid to think outside the box and test out unique designs.

Hikers in Hawaii Who Disobey Signs May Soon Have to Pay for Their Own Rescues

Don’t say they didn’t warn you. Along with the scenic hiking trails in Hawaii come inherent risks, be it flash-flood warnings, hazardous cliffs, or falling debris, among other dangers. Despite signage indicating that areas are closed, many still venture beyond the warnings and find themselves in precarious situations. To emphasize the importance of adhering to warnings, a proposed bill is making its way through the Hawaii state senate that would require those hikers who disobey signs to pay for their own rescues, CNN reports.

Pitts, K. – Atl (TE)

Kyle Pitts Dynasty outlook (5/12) Advice: The Dynasty community is well aware of Pitts’ potential to break the TE mold. He is currently coming off the board as a mid-first-round pick in rookie Dynasty drafts. I’m likely to be a bit higher on Pitts than the community as a whole and I have him as my No. 4 player overall among rookies. The best way to view Pitts is almost as a “unicorn” type prospect at the TE position, and that makes him even more valuable in Dynasty. Now, I know you’ve heard that before in the football scouting and Fantasy community — it has rarely translated into Fantasy production. However, Pitts is a bit of a different unicorn for the position. He possesses a wide range of translatable receiver skills and not just timed 40 speed like an Evan Engram type. (
More: Highlights | Draft Scout | Contract | Profile | Stats | News | Depth Chart | Discussion | Shop

L.A. Gas Station Tacos

Bean Dip | American Cheese | Ham | Jalepeño Cheese Dip | Pork Rinds | Beef Jerky | Pickled Jalepeños | Red Delicious Apple | Hot Sauce

Sign Up & Save

ENTER TO WIN A FREE CALENDAR & get monthly e-mails with the best deals from us and our partners.